Historical Story: Burn books and bury the literati in pits

In 213 BC (the 34th year of Qin Shihuang), in order to add Guilin County, Xiang county and Nanhai county last year, general Meng Tian defeated the Xiongnu again this year and added a Shuofang county. In the past two years, he added four counties and launched a national territory, so he held a celebration in Xianyang palace. The ministers all toasted him and wished him good health. One of the ministers, Zhou Qingchen, also prepared a celebration to the effect that: “In the past, the state of Qin had only a thousand miles of territory.

Now, with the wise deeds of the emperor, it calmed down the sea and unified the world; abolished all the princes of other countries and changed them into counties, and all the barbarians on the border were swept away; unified national laws were stipulated; cars and tracks had a certain size, and words had a certain standard. People all over the world could live and work in peace and contentment and could no longer suffer from war Chu. Since ancient times, which King has done such a great cause? “Qin Shihuang was very proud. Chunyu Yue, the leader of the Confucian scholar from the state of Qi, thought to himself,” if you don’t refute, you won’t have a chance. “He stood up and said: “The king of Zhou granted the land to his children and meritorious officials and asked them to help the court together. The Zhou Dynasty enjoyed the world for more than 800 years. Now the emperor has the world, but his children and meritorious officials don’t even have a piece of land. What can we do if something happens to several counties? No matter what we do, we can’t grow without taking the ancients as teachers. What the young officials said just now is Those who flatter the emperor tell the emperor to leave the right path. Such people who despise the ancients and flatter people face to face are by no means loyal ministers! “As soon as Qin Shihuang saw that the two ministers quarreled, he asked other ministers what their opinions were.

Liz stood up and said: “The five emperors’ careers are different. They don’t do the same thing as the previous one. The systems of the three generations are also different. Not every generation copies the systems of the previous generation again. This doesn’t mean that they don’t want to learn from the ancients, but they want a set of novel and special tricks. It’s all for the change of the times, of course, the methods are different. The great work created by the Emperor today Business has never been done since ancient times. Most Confucian scholars have never heard of it, and they can’t think of it. What do they know! Chun Yu Yue is talking about the old accounts of the past three generations.

Historical Story

What’s the use today? In the past, the countries were scattered, and the princes were angry. Those scholars pretended to be sages and preached to the ancients. It’s not how good the ancients were, it’s how good they are now How bad. A hundred schools of poetry and books have talked about it. In fact, it is of no use at all. These students simply don’t work hard and don’t delve into real knowledge. They don’t know how to cultivate land, grow vegetables, plant trees, cure diseases, manage the people, and enforce criminal law – they don’t know and don’t delve into it. They know how to recite them After learning several ancient texts, he criticized the imperial court with one mouth, overturned right and wrong, and said what he thought. Now that the world is unified and the system is unified, all he has to do is pay attention to decrees, persuade farmers and workers, and ask them to exert their strength. The most important thing is to get up and work, not sit and talk nonsense.

The decrees of the imperial court should be respected before they are useful. But these Confucian scholars see the new law Order, take out the ancient books and compare them to see if there were such laws in ancient times. If there was no basis in the ancient books, they would talk to you and me. Some still made rumors and slandered the imperial court. Will the country still look like this? Can everything that should be reformed be done? Therefore, I asked the emperor to order: in addition to the history of the state of Qin And those useful books, such as medicine, divination, planting trees and decrees, the rest of the poems, books and the speeches of hundreds of families were burned. Anyone who wants to hide them privately will be punished; those who orally legend such books are capital crimes; those who take ancient comments against the current decrees are also capital crimes. After my words are over, please ask the emperor to decide. ”

After hearing Lisi’s great truth, some ministers did not dare to oppose it, and some could not give reasons for their opposition. When they saw Qin Shihuang listen to it, they nodded, and they had to nod. Qin Shihuang approved Lisi’s proposal and immediately ordered to burn poems, books and books of hundreds of schools. As soon as they saw that their power was over, those Confucian scholars could not speak or write Secretly discuss ways.

Although Qin Shihuang is a capable man, he has too many things to do. How can one person do things in the world? After the annexation of the six countries, he personally went out to tour everywhere almost every year. From northwest to southwest, from north to south, and from west to East, he has almost traveled all the main mountains and rivers in China. He wants to take the power of the country in his own hands In his hands, he had to personally approve the memorials and official documents of various counties and counties. He couldn’t rest until midnight. Even if he went on like this every day, he couldn’t stand it. He not only wanted to take tonics to strengthen his body and brain, but also wanted to find immortal prescriptions. As the saying goes, “to be an emperor, you should be an immortal.” This is true for Qin Shihuang. Some businessmen who buy and sell tonics and alchemists in the Jianghu want to make a lot of money. Some take no three no four earth prescriptions and make pills, saying they are elixirs; some cheat the emperor of a sum of money and say they are buying elixirs for him. In this way, the news that Qin Shihuang wants to be an immortal has not been done yet. The news that Qin Shihuang wants to be an immortal has spread All over the world. Those alchemists cheated money and couldn’t get magic medicine. They were afraid that the first emperor of Qin would punish them if they failed. Because there was a law of the state of Qin: if the alchemists failed to test, they would be sentenced to death. Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng, the head of the alchemists, told the Confucian scholars behind their backs: “The first emperor was an autocratic tyrant. Under his command, doctors, alchemists, diviners, dreamers, stars and weather watchers, we can only say flattery, but we can’t criticize his fault. He is so greedy for power, we can’t ask for magic medicine for him.” Confucian scholars and alchemists used to mix together. Now, because Hou Sheng and Lu Sheng secretly opposed the autocratic dictatorship of Qin Shihuang, those Confucian scholars criticized Qin Shihuang again by quoting scriptures.

As soon as Qin Shihuang heard that the Confucian scholars and alchemists were talking again, he sent his confidants to secretly inquire about them. He was also going to arrest some people who opposed him, the first was Hou Sheng and the second was Lu Sheng. He was going to send someone to catch them, but he didn’t expect that the two men had already run away. Qin Shihuang knew that they had inside information. He asked the censor to take those who opposed him The Confucian scholars and alchemists suspected by the emperor were interrogated. They trembled before they were tortured and told a large number of people. After interrogation, Qin Shihuang buried more than 460 people who thought they had violated the ban alive and blasted those who violated the ban to the frontier to open up wasteland. Qin Shihuang killed this small Group [CuO] Confucian scholars and alchemists not only formed a grudge against the Confucianists of Confucius and Mencius, but also later people followed suit and regarded him as a typical tyrant.

The eldest son Fusu was kind and advised his father not to deal with Confucian scholars like this. He said: “these Confucian scholars follow Confucius’ example. Now they are dealt with with with such a serious criminal law. I’m worried about the world.” Qin Shihuang thought that Fusu didn’t understand these things, how could he govern the world if the party was chaotic and not suppressed? He asked Fusu to go to Shangjun to supervise Mengtian’s army. Fusu’s idea was different from his father. He always thought that burning books and pitching Confucianism was an atrocity. He was afraid that if it went on like this, how could the world be peaceful! Fusu didn’t know that burning books and pitching Confucianism didn’t have much to do with the people all over the world, However, if the rule of the state of Qin intensifies the oppression and tyranny on the people, its rule will not last long. The nobles of the old six countries still refuse to give up. They still want to restore the original situation of the Warring States period anytime and anywhere, and the world will not be peaceful.

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